Comenius - Following the Famous Scientists

Scientific discoveries



Uppdated 2009-08-25


Nicolaus Copernicus
- Scientific discoveries

Copernicus continued to devote much time astronomy and the theory of construction of the world. The first outline of the theory appeared in a work , which is known under the title " Commentariolus Copernicus of the hypotheses created by the movements of the heavenly". In Komentarzyku, after a brief introduction, Copernicus showed some shortcomings of the old theory, which empowered him to propose a new, based on the following seven assumptions: 1. There is no single center of all the celestial circles or spheres. 2. Center of the earth is not a center of the universe, but only the center of gravity and measure the sphere of the moon. 3. All spheres orbit the sun as its center and therefore the Sun is a measure of the whole universe. 4. The ratio of the distance of Earth from the Sun to a height of the firmament is much smaller than the radius of the Earth relative to its distance from the Sun, and therefore the distance of Earth from the Sun is minutely small compared to the amount of the firmament. 5. Any movement is perceived in the firmament, it does not come with any movement firmament, but the motion of the earth. Earth its elements make a complete rotation around its unvarying daily poles, while the firmament and highest heaven remain motionless. 6. This is what we present as a movement of the sun, comes not from its motion, but the movement of the earth and our sphere, with which revolves around the sun, just like any other planet. Therefore the Earth makes more than one movement. 7. The motion of planets comes not from their motion, but the motion of the earth. Thus the motion of the earth itself is sufficient to explain many of the apparent movement in the sky. In his considerations, Nicolaus Copernicus uses the concepts of the sixteenth century astronomers, speaking about the movements of the spheres instead of the movements of planets. He assigns Earth three-fold movement: circulation around the sun, rotating around its axis, and the third movement which is peculiar in nature and in terms of modern science is superfluous. In further consideration of Copernicus notes that the movements of planets in the sky should be related not to the point of equinox (because its position is not permanent), but for some stars. Copernicus to define the circulation of the Earth around the Sun chose the Ear star Mary and set the length of years as a star equal to 365d 6h 10m, so only about 1m more than it currently adopts. Copernicus didn't print his work because he planned to write more extended work. For this purpose, he took a lot of observation of the sun, moon and planets, and carried out many calculations. To continue his observations, Copernicus used simple tools, often of his own design. To observe planets he used: solar quadrant (to calculate the latitude location of observation), the armilar sphere (for determining the angles of the coordinates of the planet), triquetrum (to observe the Moon). In his work, Copernicus placed great emphasis on the observation that verytfied right theory. The results of his accounts Copernicus figures in the tables, which have facilitated the calculation of the positions of the sun, moon and other planets in the sky. Copernicus also observed the eclipse of the sun and moon, using its own method called screen, which was the prototype of a photographic camera. Predicted phases of Venus and Mercury, as confirmed after Galileo. He believed that the world is spherical, and therefore finite. In another book I, "De revolutionibus" the issue of the finiteness of the world is left to philosophers of nature.. The work of Nicolaus Copernicus made the revolution in views of the world. Different law ruled the four elements: earth, water, air and fire. In the world of consumable natural movements were movements of the straight, down to the center of the universe (ie the center of the earth) for the heavy elements, namely earth and water, and move upward to the light elements : air and fire. World indestructible built with different materials, perfect, ran in an eternal circular motion, and no changes were possible in it. The sun was set up to heat and illuminate the Earth, the moon would shine the darkness of night, and all nature in order to serve man. Based on these assumptions, all religions and belief that human souls arrived on Earth from celestial bodies, which is what determined the fate of humans on Earth. Thus astrology was born, very common in the days of Copernicus. Copernican theory treats the earth as one of many planets orbit the sun. Thus, the material forming the earth should have the same properties as the other planets. Assigning equal ownership of all celestial bodies and the earth leads to generalizations of great scientific and philosophical. This is a statement of the unity of rights and the unity of matter in the universe. In the years 1539-1541 is present in Frombork wittemberskiego University mathematics professor Georg Joachim von Lauchen, commonly known as Rheticus. Leaving Frombork he took a copy of De Rovolutionibus to print it at Nuremberg. Copernicus' work was printed in 1543 probably in about 1000 copies. Was entitled "De revolutionibus" or Copernicus Torunczyk blue circles with a turnover of six books contained in the preface and dedicatory letter to Pope Paul III. Nicolaus Copernicus was a modern scholar and a courageous man seeking the truth about the universe. Advertised in print work has brought the world a new idea.